Diabetes mellitus type 1 or commonly known as Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition and as per studies it is one of the common diseases found in USA. It has certain causes, symptoms, treatment that differs to other types of diabetes.
It commonly affects people before the age of 30, but can also develop in older people. It can occur both to women and men.
What is type 1 Diabetes?
There are two main kinds of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1diabetes develops when the body produces little or no insulin. When this occurs, glucose can’t reach the cells for energy and stays back in the blood, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
The exact causes of type 1 diabetes is still unknown, but according to researches it develops when a virus or environmental toxin harms the pancreas or makes the body’s immune system to attack the beta cells of the pancreas (called an autoimmune reaction). As a result, the beta cells of the pancreas are not in a position to produce required insulin.
Type 1 Diabetes Symptoms
Few people may not have symptoms, but generally the following are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar):
- Improper vision
- Reduced mental strength
- High thirst and hunger
- Increased urination
- Increased skin infections
- Longer time to heal wounds
The emergency symptoms of very high blood sugar include:
- Speedy Breathing
- Failure of coordination
- Abdomen pain
- Improper speech
It’s absolutely critical to get immediate emergency medical attention if any of the above emergency symptoms develop. Make sure you get to a hospital right away.
There are short- and long-term complications associated with diabetes. Short-term problems are hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Taking too much insulin*, missing a meal, or over-exercising can make blood sugar go too low.
Symptoms of low blood sugar can come along very quickly, and they can include:
- Cold sweats
- Fast heartbeat
- Light headedness
- Numbness of the tongue and lips
Diagnosing Type 1 Diabetes
To diagnose Type 1 Diabetes blood sugar levels are to be known. If the levels are above a certain level, the diagnosis of diabetes can be established.
Diagnosing diabetes can be done by measuring sugar levels in many ways such as:
- Fasting sugar (before intake of food)
- Random sugar (done at any time during the day)
- Sugar level 2 hours after a standard load of carbohydrates
Based on the method chosen, a blood sugar level above a certain threshold will confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes treatment includes a wide-range management plan that consists of insulin treatment, and the prevention and treatment of complications.
Cure for type 1diabetes needs lifelong substitute therapy with insulin. Insulin needs to be injected and can’t be administered by mouth.
Proper nutrition is also part of treatment. Following a healthy, balanced meal plan assists to control blood sugar.
Exercise and proper workouts such as jogging, brisk walking and aerobics also helps to improve blood sugar control.